Contaminated Sediments

Enhanced sedimentation rates can lead to the smothering of benthic communities, which can affect how nutrients are recycled. What causes sedimentation rates to change? Some natural controls on the sedimentation rates experienced by coastal waterways include climate rainfall, seasonality , geology, slope or topography , vegetation and the size of the catchment. As a result, modern infilling rates in some Australian coastal waterways are at least double those experienced during the late Holocene Table 1 [6]. Siltation may be particularly catastrophic following intense rainfall events [2,22,7]. It has also been found that in some estuaries the rate of infilling may have further accelerated during the last few decades compared to earlier in the last century [8,9], highlighting the fact that enhanced sedimentation is an ongoing management issue [6]. Significance of sedimentation rates Sedimentation rate data can be used to determine whether a waterway has been subject to enhanced sediment loads due to changes in catchment land use practices. Enhanced sedimentation rates can bring about rapid changes in the form and function of coastal waterways. For example, in wave-dominated estuaries the configuration of habitats alters:

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The presence of Cs preserved in the sediments is associated with nuclear weapon testing, and its initiation is interpreted to correspond to around We use the peak trace of Cs to determine the stratigraphic interval that was deposited in Pb activity within sediment can be used to estimate accretion rates. Pb is a product of the uranium-decay series where Ra within the crust decays to Rn A fraction of the Rn enters the atmosphere where it in turn decays to Pb , and then quickly precipitates out of the atmosphere, is deposited at the surface, and decays with a half-life of Both isotopes when coalescing with raindrops, will fall to the atmosphere and be absorped and adsorped by plant matter in a marsh.

Pb sediment core dating The correlation of Cs specific activity profiles with the historical fallout sequence is essential in sediment cores dating using this technique. The work referenced (Arnaud et al., ) studies sedimentary sequences dated by different techniques, including the measurement of Cs specific activity profiles.

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NORM results from activities such as burning coal, making and using fertilisers, oil and gas production. Uranium mining exposes those involved to NORM in the uranium orebody. Radon in homes is one occurrence of NORM which may give rise to concern and action to control it, by ventilation.

Lead dating is particularly useful for determining the ages of relatively recent lacustrine and coastal marine sediments and so has been applied increasingly to studies concerned with the impact of human activity on the aquatic environment (e.g., measuring the accumulation rates of pollutants in sediments).

We compared oxygen isotopic profiles from authigenic calcite in nine freeze cores from Lake Turkana, Kenya, with the historical record of lake levels for the past years. Pb dating of the cores indicates that sediment in two of the cores spans the complete historical record. We observed spatial variability in delta 18 O and delta 13 C values between cores and an offset from expected isotopic equilibrium values in several of the cores.

Both of these characteristics can be explained by proximity to river input. In model calculations of lake level, we muted the spatial variability of the delta 18 O dataset by using a normalized and stacked record. There is good agreement between the lake level history modeled using the normalized and stacked record and the historical record of lake level. The lake level record derived from the delta 18 O data indicates that lake level fluctuated by 15 m during the last century.

Our model calculations indicate that delta 18 O records can be used to generate quantitative lake level curves even using datasets with significant spatial variability.

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Presley Significant differences in total and leachable concentrations of some metals were observed between Mississippi River suspended matter and Gulf of Mexico sediments. These variations are related tc diversity in Gulf sediment redox conditions, accumulation rates and grain-size distribution. In general, total and leachable metal concentrations in river suspended matter are seasonally and spatially uniform.

Objectives • To apply the Pb and Cs radiometric methods dating method for the lake sediments • Improved measurementsby alpha and gamma-spectrometry in the determination of radionuclides of interest ( Pb/ Po, Ra and Cs) • Geochronology of the the sediment layers.

Its major component is calcium carbonate and the crystal structure is high-Mg calcite. Their skeletal axes are used for jewellery, rosary, amulet, etc. They are found mainly in the Japanese coast, the Mediterranean and off the Midway Islands and they are distributed at a depth of m to m. The growing skeletons of precious corals have potential for recording environmental change. Pb is a naturally occurring radionuclide with a half-life of Pb is a natural sediment marker suitable for dating events that have occurred over the past years and has been used to measure the sedimentation rates of lake and coastal marine sediments.

The objectives of this study were to measure the Pb concentration in the skeletons of Japanese red coral, pink coral and white coral and to estimate the radial growth rate using Pb dating method.

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Paper handled by associate editor Pete Hollings Published on the web 10 December This article is one of a series of papers published in this Special Issue on the theme Polar Climate Stability Network. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, , 45

Abstract. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues.

The Apipucos Reservoir is located in Pernambuco-Brazil. Several districts of the metropolitan area use this reservoir to dispose of rubbish, waste and sewage. Dating sediments uses the Pb from the atmosphere. The chosen model for dating sediments depends on certain conditions: In environments where the sediments can be considered to be constant, a Constant Initial Concentration CIC model is applied.

A 70 cm long and 5 cm internal-diameter wide core was used for sediment sampling. For the second sampling point, both models could be used. The results showed an increase in sedimentation rate over the last 50—60 years. We could conclude that the top sediment interval had been there 30 years ago. We could decide that the CRS was the best applicable model. Introduction The Apipucos Reservoir is a sub-basin of the Capibaribe River, located in Apipucos, in the western area of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, built in order to control the Capibaribe River flooding.

However, several districts of the metropolitan area of Recife, such as Casa Amarela, Nova Descoberta, Macaxeira, among others, make this dam a waste and sewage dumping area. The Pb has two natural origins:

Isotopes of lead

Received Sep 11; Accepted Jan 1. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. We used Pb and 14C to date the 5. The chronology of changes in sediment characteristics for LH is consistent with the general paleoenvironmental framework established by core studies from other Florida lakes. Lake Harris began to fill with water in the early Holocene, ca. A shift from carbonate-dominated to organic-rich sediments ca.

Pb fluxes in the fiord The flux of Pb to the sediment at each station was estimated by dividing the total excess Pb inventory in the cores by the average lifetime of Pb with respect to radioactive decay ( yr).

Like the lighter members of the group, lead tends to bond with itself; it can form chains, rings and polyhedral structures. Lead is soft and malleable, and has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. In the late 19th century, lead’s toxicity was recognized, and its use has since been phased out of many applications.

Lead is a toxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, it acts as a neurotoxin damaging the nervous system and interferences with the function of biological enzymes. Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature; lead and lead oxides react with acids and bases, and it tends to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead are usually found in the 2 oxidation state rather than the 4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group.

Lead’s tensile strength, at 12—17 MPa, is low that of aluminium is 6 times higher, copper 10 times, and mild steel 15 times higher ; it can be strengthened by adding small amounts of copper or antimony. With its high atomic number, lead is the heaviest element whose natural isotopes are regarded as stable; lead is the heaviest stable nucleus. This distinction formerly fell to bismuth, with an atomic number of 83, until its only primordial isotope, bismuth , was found in to decay very slowly. The four stable isotopes of lead could theoretically undergo alpha decay to isotopes of mercury with a release of energy, but this has not been observed for any of them; their predicted half-lives range from 10 times the current age of the universe.

As uranium decays into lead, their relative amounts change; this is the basis for uranium—lead dating.

Sedimentation rates

Fingerprinting sediment transport in River-dominated Margins using combined mineral magnetic and radionuclide methods. Journal of Geophysical Research: Marine Chemistry , , doi: Chemical Geology, , , doi:

for absolute dating and grain-size distribution analyses. The main reference for Pb dating of the Morskie Oko sediments is Baumgart-Kotarba et al. ().

Clark 2 , William A. Careful separation of important indicator pollen types allowed identification of regional changes in vegetation. Comparison of pollen profiles and historic documents supplied three dated horizons: Pb provided chronologies for the last year sections of cores. Chronologies from each were compared and used to date a rise in industrially derived opaque spherules independently. Results showed that a combination of techniques could be sed to obtain detailed chronologies from intertidal sediments deposited within the last years and to interpret salt marsh and barrier island dynamics.

Although Pb may be restricted in its application due to erratic sedimentation, pollen analysis can be used to date strata from high-energy marshes where sediment-accumulation rates fluctuate. Certainly the best value and the lowest price, Protected Documents are recommended for librarians and others for whom security and copyright control is important. The PDF is no longer restricted to one machine, but can be circulated to others in the same company or department.

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Uranium-lead dating

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